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APA Referencing Style : Audio-Visual Media

The aim of this guide is to present concisely the basic rules for citing various types of resources in APA Referencing Style (7th edition).


On this page:

  • Film & TV series
  • Video
  • Music recording
  • Podcast
  • Tables and Figures
  • Artworks
  • Images / photos

Film & TV series

Film or video

Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

Gardiner, A., Curtis, C., & Michael, E. (Producers), & Waititi, T. (Director). (2010). Boy: Welcome to my interesting world [DVD]. Transmission.

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film, four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

TV series Simon, D., Colesberry, R. F., & Kostroff Noble, N. (Executive Producers). (2002-2008). The wire [TV series]. Blown Deadline Productions; HBO.

Episode from TV series

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House. Fox Broadcasting.

Images / photos

Images / photos

Note that if you are using images in your thesis/dissertation/assignment, you have to check the copyright/usage rights information for each item. For more information about Image Copyright check our Libguide.


McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://xxxxx

Note: Use this format to cite (but not reproduce)photographs or other artwork not connected to a museum.

For untitled photograph, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.


Rossman, J., & Palmer, R. (2015). Sorting through our space junk [Infographic]. World Science Festival. https://xxxxx

Clip art or stock image

GDJ. (2018). Neural network deep learning prismatic [Clip art]. Openclipart. https://xxxxx

Exhibition catalog:

Kahukiwa, R. (1995). Robyn Kahukiwa: Works from 1985-1995 [Exhibition catalogue]. Wellington, New Zealand: Bowen Galleries.

Tables and Figures

Tables include numerical values or text displayed in rows and columns.

Figures include any type of illustration (chart, graph, photograph, drawing maps) other than a table.

Note: If you want to use table or figure from another source in your thesis, dissertation or article, you will have to ask for permission the original copyright owners of the work. When permission has been granted, you should include "Reprinted with permission" under the reproduced tables, figures and images.


General guidelines:

  • Number tables subsequently (no italics, above the table): Table 1, Table 2…; each table has to be referred to in the text: … as shown in Table 1.
  • Title: place it above the table itself and below the table number; italics, capitalize each word, no full stop; brief, but clear and explanatory.
  • Notes: place directly below the table, the word "Note" in italics with a full stop, for example and explain abbreviations, symbols etc.; acknowledge the source of the table or include a copyright statement at the end of the note.


General guidelines:

  • Number figures subsequently (italics, below the figure): Figure 1, Figure 2
  • Caption: serves as an explanation and title; below the figure; italics; if you use a figure that has been adapted or copied directly from another source, you need to reference that original source with a caption underneath the figure (image); give concise explanation of the figure; include copyright information;
  • Legend: explains the symbols used in the figure; the same kind and proportion of lettering that appear in the rest of the figure; capitalized major words in the legend; place the legend within the figure.



Audiovisual media includes motion pictures, audio or television broadcasts (including podcasts), and static objects (maps, artworks, photos).

Reference format:

Director, D. D. (Director). (2020). Title of work [Description]. Production Company. https://xxxxxx

Writer, W. W. (Writer) & Director, D. D. (Director). (2020). Title of episode (Season No., Episode No.) [Description]. In P. P. Producer (Executive Producer). Title of TV series. Production Company. https://xxxxx

Media type Include as the author
Film Director
TV series Exclusive producer/s
TV series  episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Classical music album or song Composer
Modern music album or song Recording artist
Artwork Artist
Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video



Source: American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style. (7th ed.). 

Music recording

Music album

Bowie, D. (2016). Blackstar [Album]. Columbia.

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

Note: For classical work - provide composer as the author; the individual or group who recorded the version you used; the year of original composition.

It is not necessary to specify how you listened to the album (e.g. Spotify, iTunes, etc.)

Include the URL if it is the only means of retrieval


Beyoncé. (2016). Formation [Song]. On Lemonade. Parkwood; Columbia.

Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3. in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staatskappelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1840)


Video podcast

Dunning, B. (Producer). (2011, January 12). inFact: Conspiracy theories [Video podcast]. itunes.

Audio podcast

Podcast (as a whole)

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015-present). Hidden brain. [Audio podcast]. NPR. https://xxxxx

Podcast episode

Glass, I. (Host). (2011, August 12). Amusement park (No. 443) [Audio podcast episode]. In This American life. WEBZ Chicago. https://xxxxx



Harper, W. (Producer & Director), Harper, D. S. (Producer), & Aron, E. (Writer). (2015). Sensitive: The untold story [Video].

Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video].

YouTube video

Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Ghost caught on surveillance camera [Video]. Vimeo.

Dunning, B. [volleybrian]. (2011, January 12). inFact: Conspiracy theories [Video]. You Tube. =5&feature=plcp

TED. (2013, March 1). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. You Tube.

Webinar Goldberg, J. F. (2018). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinar]. American Psychiatric Association https://xxxxx


Artwork in a museum or a museum website


Modigliani, A. (1919). Elvira resting at a table [Painting]. Saint Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Delacroix, E. (1826-1827). Faust attempts to seduce Marguerite [Lithograph]. The Louvre, Paris, France.

Raverat, G. (2008). Travellers [Woodcut]. Ackland Art Museum, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Giotto. [ca. 1310 ACE]. Scenes from the New Testament: Flight into Egypt [Fresco]. Assisi, Italy: Sacro convento di S. Francesco.

Image of an artwork


Marc, F. (1912). The red deer [Painting].

Du Maurier, G. [ca. 1881]. George Du Maurier [Drawing].

Hipkins, G. (2006). The shaman (blue) [Photograph].


Cable, D. (2013). The radical dot map [Map]. University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service. https://xxxxx

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from La Paz, Bolivia to Lima, Peru]. Retrieved February 16, 2020., from