All the sources you refer to in your writing (in-text citations) must be included in the reference list at the end of your work. The purpose of the reference list is to provide your readers with detailed information for the sources you used, so that they can find them. It also gives credit to authors whose work you have used and consulted.
Note: List only the sources that you have actually used in the research, i.e. do not include sources for background or further information (as in the bibliography). The authors are responsible for all the information in the reference list.
Include all in-text citations in the reference list, except from the personal communication.
The elements of a reference:author, date, title and source
Indent: Use hanging indent of 0.5 for your references.
Right click – Paragraph – Indentation – Special: Hanging;
Space: Double-space between references.
Right click – Paragraph – Spacing – Line spacing: Double
Each reference element is followed by a period, except the DOI or URL address as this may interfere with the link functionality.
Use commas between parts of the same reference element.
Italicize punctuation marks that appear within an italic reference element (e.g. a comma within a book title) and don't italicize punctuation between reference elements (e.g. a period after an italic book title).
Arrange the reference list in alphabetical order of the authors’ last names. If there are two or more publications of the same author, arrange them by publication date. If the first author is the same and the second authors are different, order them by subsequent author’s name. If there is no author, order them by title (excluding words as “A” or “The”).
Author, A. A. & Author, B. B.
Janet, P. [Paul]…
Janet. P. [Pierre]…
Lamour, J.-B., (for Jean-Baptiste Lamour)
Royal Institute of Technology.
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book. Publisher.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp.). Publisher.
Format: present DOIs and URLs as hyperlink (i.e. "http://"); don't include "Retrieved from"; you can use either the underlined hyperlinks or plain text; format the DOI link as "https//doi.org/xxxxx"; don't use "DOI: before the DOI link; don't add period after the DOI or URL.
DOI (digital object identifier) usually identifies journal articles but can also be found on other types of publications. DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item making it easy to locate. Usually has the following structure: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2019.04.001*
* According to APA Manual 7th edition the DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label "DOI:" is no longer used.
Note: always include DOI (if available) when referencing a paper; do NOT put a full stop at the end of DOI; place it as last element in your reference.
Oppenheimer, D., Zaromb, F., Pomerantz, J. R., Williams, J. C., & Park, Y. S. (2017). Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing, 32, 12–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001
This is the URL of the book you are reading. The correct URL in the reference for this book should be https://search.ebscohost.com
Acceptable abbreviations in the reference list:
Note: APA journals use Arabic numerals (e.g., Vol 3, not Vol. III). But if a Roman numeral is part of the title, it should remain Roman (e.g., Attention and Performance XIII).