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- ibid. - the same place as the immediately preceding citation (sometimes with a different page number)
- op. cit. - an earlier reference of the same work but not the immediately previous reference (sometimes with a different page number)
- loc cit. - the same page as previous citation of the same work.
- et al. - means 'and others' in Latin and is used to indicate the authorship when four or more authors have contributed to the work. It can be used in footnotes and endnotes but not in the bibliography.
- ed. - editor/deitions
- ch./chs. - chapter/chapters
- n.p. - no place of publication
- n.d. - no date of publication
Examples and information for this guide were retrieved from: