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Chicago Manual of Style: Additional Information

The purpose of this guide is to show you how to cite your resources using the Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition). It provides useful tips and examples for organizing your work and bibliography.


  • ibid. - the same place as the immediately preceding citation (sometimes with a different page number)
  • op. cit. - an earlier reference of the same work but not the immediately previous reference (sometimes with a different page number)
  • loc cit. - the same page as previous citation of the same work.
  • et al. - means 'and others' in Latin and is used to indicate the authorship when four or more authors have contributed to the work. It can be used in footnotes and endnotes but not in the bibliography.
  • ed. - editor/deitions
  • ch./chs. - chapter/chapters
  • n.p. - no place of publication
  • n.d. - no date of publication


Examples and information for this guide were retrieved from: